Kashmir disagreement: the burst point sandwiched between India and Pakistan



Kashmir, the blaze point between India and Pakistan is the British legacy in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Being and unfinished agenda of the partition of India, the future of the intact south Asia depends on the future of Kashmir.     
Paradise like Kashmir, which is also called the Switzerland of Indo-Pak subcontinent, is surrounded by India, Pakistan, and the People Republic of China.
Historical Background of Kashmir:
Area of Kashmir:
The total area of Kashmir is 84741 square miles, which is equal to 135586 kilometers.   
Kashmir Liberation Movement:
When the Kashmir’s Muslims realized that their ruler, Hari Singh was not going to honor the wish of majority of Kashmiris, they rose against him. First of all the Muslims of Poonch came to the street against Maharaja and his government.
Response of Maharaja:
Although, Maharaja applied his full state force to crush the movement of the Muslims at Poonch, he not only failed, his force also had to vacate the districts of Poonch and Mirpur. As a result, the freedom fighters under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim Khan constituted their own government, called Azad Kashmir government. Racing to this the Hindus, predominantly, those who had migrated from the west Punjab started killing and assaulting the Muslims in Jammu and surrounded rural areas as well, this plunged Kashmir into civil war.
Civil War in Kashmir:
During the power struggle between the Kashmiri freedom fighters and the maharaja forces, on October 22, 1947 some brave tribes’ brave fighters of Pakistan entered Kashmir to help their Kashmiri brothers. On October 26, 1947, Hari Singh, who had lost confidence of the majority of Kashmiris , run away from Jammu and found a safe place at Srinagar. On the next day, Hari Singh, decided to accede to India and sought military assistance from Lord Mountbatten. While accepting the request of Hari Singh conditionally permitted army to enter into Kashmir but made it clear in a letter to Singh that future of Kashmir is remain in the hands of Kashmiris. In such circumstance, Pakistan had no option to respond India militarily in Kashmir. As a result, Quaid-e-Azam ordered commander-in-chief of Pakistan army to check the Indian endeavors. Being disappointed from the war theater in Kashmir, pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister of India took the Kashmir dispute to the security council of UNO on January 1, 1948.
Role of UNO:
Uno established cease-fire line in Kashmir and for the resolution of dispute appointed the un commission for India and Pakistan. The commission passed two resolutions on august 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949, which granted the right of self-determination to the Kashmiris in principle ____that they were entitled to determine the final destiny of their land, Kashmir. However, unfortunately, the UNO failed to implement the resolutions of its commission well in time, which resulted in war between India and Pakistan in 1965.
UNO and the Kashmir Dispute:
From 1948 to 1971, the security council of United Nations Organization and the UN Commission for the India and Pakistan has adopted 18 and 2 resolutions, respectively, regarding the Kashmir dispute. However, so far the UN has not succeeded in holding a plebiscite (vote of all citizens) in Kashmir, which was promised to Kashmiris.
Great Powers and the Kashmir Dispute:
Kashmir is not an attractive land like Kuwait and East Timur. Great powers like USA, Britain and others maintain that both India and Pakistan should resolve the Kashmir dispute bilaterally. This perception of great powers is in fact, endorsement of the Indian position (bilateralism).
Muslim World and the Kashmir Dispute:
Despite the fact that the Muslims have the highest number (57) in the UN General Assembly, the Muslim world has no decisive say in resolving the Kashmir issue in accordance with the wishes of the kashmiris. OIC, being a subservient body to UNO can only pass ceremonial resolutions, regarding Kashmir issue.
Kashmir and the Kashmiris:
Unfortunately, today the Kashmiris are having divergent perceptions about the Kashmir issue. They have only two options; to join India or Pakistan but they are divided into more than thirty-six political parties and fractions. Apart from this, some Kashmiri leaders are of the view that the Third Opinion; neither with India nor with Pakistan, is the only possible solution to the Kashmir dispute. One thing is clear, unless and until Kashmiris are united, it is nearly impossible they would succeed in liberating their motherland.
General Musharraf and the Kashmir Dispute:
A two days summit, (Agra summit) was held between General Musharraf, the President of Pakistan and Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee, the Prime Minister of India for resolving the outstanding issues between India and Pakistan, on the 15 and 16 July 2001, in Agra but the summit was collapsed on the Cross-border-terrorism words in the summit declaration. On December 5, 2006, General Musharraf, while taking bold initiative, presented the following proposals for the resolution of Kashmir Dispute:
Proposals of General Musharraf:
·       Demilitarization of Kashmir; a phased withdrawal of troops from Kashmir.
·       Self-governance of Kashmiris.
·       No change in the borders of Kashmir.
·       A joint supervision Mechanism, involving India, Pakistan and Kashmir.
India did not respond to these proposals in a reasonable responsible way.
 Conclusion:
Pakistan is trying its level best to get the Kashmir dispute resolved through multi-literalism. On the other hand, India is trying every means to manage the dispute bilaterally. Conflict resolution and conflict management are two different things. The fact is that in a two party dispute, bilateralism could be applied but in a dispute in which, more than two parties are involved, multi-literalism is to be applied. In Kashmir dispute, there are three parties, namely, India, Pakistan, and the Kashmiris. Looking at the nature of Kashmir dispute, the stand of Pakistan is principled. After the 9/11 era, India linked the Kashmiris’ struggle for self-determination with global terrorism and struggled hard to get Pakistan engaged on its western border. Actually, the game, which India has been playing with Pakistan since the initiation of the Composite Dialogue between Islamabad and Delhi, is to get Pakistan engaged on different fronts and through this tactic take the Kashmir dispute out of sight, out of mind and out of consideration. Without resolving the Kashmir dispute, India could neither become a permanent member of the Security Council nor a South Asian tiger.
Lesson from History;
India should learn from the history if the United States of America could not succeed in Vietnam and the same happened to the former Soviet Union in Afghanistan, how could India win the hearts and minds of the Kashmiris? Impossible.

               
                                      

3 comments:

  1. yes kashmir banay ga pakistan

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  2. Kashmir is the part of Pakistan. One day we will achieve our goal.

    ReplyDelete