China-Pak Economic Corridor fortune-changer for Pakistan


Introduction to CPEC:  

Pak-China Economic Corridor (CPEC) is indeed the incredible gift of the far-sighted visionary leadership of China and Pakistan for the people of Pakistan and China in particular and the people of the region in general in the ongoing era of globalization. It is an extension of China’s proposed 21st century “Silk Road” initiative and reflects Chinese President Xi Chingping’s vision of “one belt one road”. It will provide China direct excess to warm water and resources-rich Middle East Region by passing longer routes currently through the Indian occasion and the dangerous strait of Malaaca. Upon its completion, it would be a new wonder of the world.

The Longest Corridor Ever:

The 3000-km long, China-Pak Economic Corridor is a 46$ billion project. It is also the biggest overseas Chinese investment, which is going to connect “Gwadar” natural deep seaport of Pakistan, on the Arabian Sea in the mouth of Persion Gulf with the Chinese city, Kashgar of the Xinjing autonomous region through highways, rail link and oil and gas pipelines as well. It is not merely a road; it embeds development projects, in different sectors, including energy, telecommunications, and infrastructure. It will really transform Pakistan into a regional economic hub.  
Xi Jinping’s Visit to Pakistan
   
Xi Jinping’s Visit to Pakistan:

The project was launched in April 2015 during Chinese President Xi Chingping’s visit to Islamabad despite India’s strong objections.





CPEC is Fruitful for the whole Asia:

The China-Pak Corridor would open up new avenues of economic progress and prosperity as well. Not only in South Asia and China but would also help Asia to become the economic engine in of the world in the current century. Although, it seems fallacious at a very first glance, when more light is shed on the topic, it clarifies its own meaning on its self. “CPEC” the life changing, game changing, style, and fashion changing project of China, which will not only be industrious for the region of Pakistan and China but entire Asia will be credited. All the resources revolved around Asia would be easily supplied through CPEC to different countries with low cost and instantly. 

Corridor Locations in Pakistan:

In Pakistani territory, there will be three alignments of the corridor namely, the western, central, and eastern. The total distance between Gwadar and Khujerab through the western alignment of the corridor is about 2653 kilometers. The cities and other areas of Gilgit-Baltistan, Khyber Pakhtunkhwa, and Balochistan, which the western alignment is going to touch are, Khujerab, Gilgit-Baltistan, Abbotabad, Hassan Abdal, Balkasar, Mianwali, Dera Ismail Khan ( D.I.Khan ), Zhob, Qilla Saifullah, Quetta, Mastung, Kalat, Surab, Besima, Panjur, Turbat and Gwadar.

Establishment of Industrial Zones:

CPEC is not only a route between the two countries but it is the establishment of corridor along with industrial zones. All the industrial zones will be driven by combined operative systems of Pakistan and China. All the western, central, and eastern alignments will have industrial zones. 

Availability of Jobs through CPEC:

CPEC is not only the construction of road but it is also the providence of jobs to the jobless ones. Through CPEC, the jobless will get their job. As a result, the ratio of joblessness will reach to bottom. Decrease in joblessness causes decrease in rate of crimes. In the history, it is the biggest opportunity of changing life style. CPEC is going to bring a positive change in lives of Asians and especially it will change the life styles of inhabitants of Pakistan.

Role of Pak Army:

Pakistan Army is the world’s best army ever. They are our protectors. They throw their own lives in danger just for the only purpose to promote peace and prosperity in Pakistan and to provide security to its people. Engineers are working properly because they are secure. The responsibility of securing all those who are working on CPEC has been taken by Pakistan Army.

Role of Chinese Engineers:

Chinese engineers are well known for their best manufacturing, industrializing, and mechanizing works. This time, they are not only building a corridor between the two countries but they are strengthening the relations of Pakistan and China through their industrial and technological ways.
   
Joint Working groups on CPEC:

The government of Pakistan has decided to set up joint working groups, having representation of all provinces to give their views and suggestions on economic and industrial hubs to be built along the corridor.

Archrivals of CPEC:

In Relation to Kashmir Dispute:

 It is worth mentioning here that the archrival of Pakistan, India is trying her level best to sabotage the China-Pak Economic Corridor through every possible means.

Objections of Modi (Prime Minister of India):

Modi, the Prime Minister of India has conveyed to the Chinese leadership “as the corridor passes through Pakistan-occupied Kashmir, therefore, it is unacceptable”. Modi while saying this forgot the history. That Kashmir was a Muslim-majority state before partition of India, that Kashmir which is unfinished agenda of partition of India, that Kashmir, where more than 700000 Para-military forces of India are deployed for cleansing of the Kashmiris and to whom India has been refusing the right of self determination since 1947 and that Kashmir, where India has converted the noble daughters of Kashmir, thousands in numbers as half widows. That Kashmir where the Indian so far, since 1947 to 2014, have killed, injured and molested hundreds of thousands of Kashmiris for the only reason that they were demanding the right of self-determination in their motherland. Apart from this, Modi also closes eyes to the ground reality in the Indian occupied Kashmir, particularly in Anantang and surrounding areas, where Pakistani flag is being hoisted in public rallies. Regarding Kashmir, India has no other opinion with the exception to accept that it is the unfinished schedule of the partition of India. It could be resolved only after giving the right of self-determination to the Kashmiris, which is their legal, moral, and genuine right. China-Pakistan Economic Corridor or bilateral trade between Pakistan and China is in accordance with international norms. No power on the earth can snatch this right from Islamic and nuclear Pakistan to take mutually agreed corridor to its logical consequences.

Chinese Government Response:

The Chinese leadership in clear terms has rejected the Indian stance on the corridor. In other words of President Xi Chingping   “both China and Pakistan are committed for the construction of the corridor”.

Transit Trade Facility for India:

India must acknowledge that a stable and economically prosperous Pakistan can provide her the facility of transit for trade with Afghanistan or for the matter access to Central Asia. The Indian political leadership should also know how to deal with a nuclear neighbor like Pakistan. 


    

A Brief History of FATA


Introduction:
A thin wedge of the size of Belgium the Federally Administrated Tribal Areas (FATA) of Pakistan is connecting Central Asia with South Asia. As per article 246 of the 1973 constitution of Pakistan, the FATA consists of a combination of seven agencies namely, Khyber, Mohmand, Kurram, Bajawar, Orakzai, North Waziristan, and South Waziristan. Moreover, six frontier regions are also included in FATA namely, FR Peshawar, FR Bannu, FR Kohat, FR Lakki Marwat, FR D I Khan, and FR Tank. The population of FATA is more than 3.7 million. A semi-arid mountainous region of 27000 square kilometers, located to the east of the Pak-Afghan border along the Durand Line, occupies a crucially important geo-strategic location.
Tribes of FATA:
“Yousafzais, Mohmands, Afridis, Shinwaris, Orakzai, Turis, Bangash, Waziris, and Mehsuds” are the chief Pakhtun tribes of the FATA; share the famous tribal code of conduct, “Pakhtunwali”. Badal (revenge), Melmastia (hospitality), Nanawate (forgiving the accused, who surrenders), and Tega (truce) are the principle pillars of Pakhtunwali.
Religiously the inhabitants of the tribal areas of Pakistan are highly pious Muslims and feel pride in their history and culture.
 Shedding light on the history shows the fact that the Greeks, Turks, Mughals, Afghans, Sikhs, and even the British, who invaded northern India at different points in time, failed to subdue them. Internally, independent but economically poor, the overwhelming majority of the tribals live on very meager resources.
Today in the FATA, some of the institutions and legacies of British rule are the Moajib” (subsidy) to Maliks, the Khassadar system (tribal levies and tribals militias), forts, Pakistan Army’s Frontier Force Regiments, the creation of agencies, the Khyber Railway and the Frontier Crimes Regulations.
Historical Background of FATA:
Genghis Khan’s Defeated by PATHANS:
The one who made minarets of skull, defeated with an iron hand by the tribes of FATA. When Genghis Khan was on conquering the world when he reached FATA, he was defeated very strongly by the Pathans of FATA. This was the first time that Genghis went back to Mongol Empire without victory.
British Leaders were unaware of the FATA’s history, regarding to Genghis Khan:    
 From 1849 to 1947, the policy of British India towards tribal areas began with a conciliatory attitude and then a campaign of reprisal in the form of fines, blockades, expeditions hit and run tactics, therefore, called the butcher and bolt policy, and finally to the brokering of agreements. Then the British policy towards the tribal areas was dictated by the imperative of containing Russia beyond the frontiers of Afghanistan and its other buffer zones. A part from the perception of threat, which arose from Russian, advances toward Turkistan and Central Asia, recurring tribal uprisings, particularly by Wazirs, Mehsuds and Mohmands for almost two decades gave the British rulers of India chronic neuralgia.     
Tribal Jirgas and Accession to Pakistan:
In November 1947, in the wake of the Partition Plan of 3 June that same year, George Cunningham, the governor of the North-West Frontier Province (NWFP), negotiated fresh agreements with the tribal jirgas, who without exception declared their accession to Pakistan. Muhammad Ali Jinnah, the founding father of Pakistan, accepted the autonomous character of the tribal areas through the Instrument of Accession, which he signed at the Bannu Tribal Jirga in November 1948.
From 1947 to 1955 and from 1956 to 1958, the NWFP Governor acted as agent to the Governor-General and the President of Pakistan respectively for the administration of tribal areas. With the dissolution of one unit scheme on 1 July 1970, Dir, Swat, Chitral, and the Malakand, protected areas and the Hazara territory were included in the NWFP. Likewise, Zhob, Sibi, Loralai, and Chaghi were made part of Baluchistan. The remaining parts of tribal areas were declared as Federally Administrated Tribal Areas of Pakistan. Under the constitution of 1973, all “Maliks” from the tribal areas constitute the Electoral College, with the eight seats in Pakistan’s National Assembly, the lower house of Pakistani Parliament, for the whole of the FATA.
The 1997 elections in Pakistan saw, for the first time, the system of adult franchise introduced in the FATA for 1.6 million eligible voters. In them, 298 candidates contested eight reserved seats for the whole of FATA. Under the 17th Amendment, introduced to the constitution of Pakistan in 2002, the reserved seats of FATA were increased from eight to twelve. Apart from twelve seats in National Assembly, eight seats elected by direct vote are also reserved for the FATA in Senate, the upper house of Pakistani parliament.
The System of Administration in FATA:
The FATA is one of the federal entities of Pakistan is administrated under the Frontier Crimes Regulations, which the British rulers of India has devised upon their occupation of Pakhtun areas in 1849. Its present form was implemented in 1901. The system of administration in the FATA is based on the principle of collective territorial responsibility of a tribe, which is executed through a body of elders called “Maliks”. The system requires the observance of the principle of inter se tribal equilibrium, called “Nikat”. Law of the soil is based on “Rivaj” and is implemented by “Jirga” or council of elder; appointed by political agent. The Political Agent is the chief executive of the agency. The recommendation of the council are enforced by “Khassadars” or corps levies, which are draw from amongst the tribes and which are supplemented by the Frontier Corps (FC) in times of need. The institutions of “Moajib”, “Maliki”, and “Khassadari” are synonymous with tribal administration in the FATA.

Effects of Soviet Invasion in Afghanistan on FATA:
Weaponry of FATA:
The Soviet invasion in Afghanistan in 1979 and influx of more than 3.5 million immigrants to Pakistan brought “Kalashnikov Culture” to the tribal areas as well as the settled areas of Pakistan. The supply of anti-aircraft missiles to the “Mujahideen” converted the FATA into a stronghold or sanctuary of the “Mujahideen”.
In the post 9/11 era, the collapse of Taliban government in Afghanistan was followed by resistance by Al-Qaida and the Taliban in Afghanistan and across the Durand Line. After the famous “Tora Bora” operation by the US and its allied forces in Afghanistan, the drift into “Talibanization” in the FATA began.
Operation Zarb-Azab:
Pakistan Army started a strong campaign against the brutalities of terrorists in FATA and especially in North Waziristan. It was impossible to eliminate terrorists from such frontline area of the country but the Pakistan Army made it possible they proved that “whatever Pak Army wants to do for the safety of the nation, they just do it”. The operation would never succeed if the Pathans were not cooperated to Pak Army. The inhabitants cooperated, Pakistan Army in a well manner. As a result, the area became secure and now the people are living a happy life.
Future of FATA:

The future of FATA is the future of Pakistan. Pakistan Army’s actions and operations in FATA during the war on terror have realized the world at large that the Durand Line is the permanent international border between Afghanistan and Pakistan and that maintenance of peace in the area is the sole responsibility of the government of Pakistan, as it is the integral part of Pakistan.
Amendments in The Favor of FATA:
The recent amendments in the Frontier Crimes Regulations (FCR) in 2011, is a right step in the right direction but its implementation and application would lessen up  to a great extent the grievances of the inhabitants of FATA.
Economical strengthen of FATA:
Bringing the FATA into mainstream of Pakistani society, uplifting the socio-economic standard of the people of FATA, and eliminating their sense of deprivation are prerequisites for national integration.
Good relations causes increase in stability:
Political analysis are of the view that not only for peace in Pakistan and the world at large but for the friendly and good neighborly, Pak-Afghan relations and convincing the Central Asian States to use Pakistani seaports for their imports and exports as well. FATA deserves to be stabilized economically and politically within the ambit of the constitution of Pakistan.
Will FATA be merged into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa?
Nowadays the debate that whether FATA will be merged into Khyber Pakhtunkhwa or it would become a separate province? It is the right of the people of FATA to decide about their future; whether they want to keep intact the existing status or they exercise any other option. The government of Pakistan will just facilitate them to determine their future within the ambit of constitution of Pakistan.

Kashmir disagreement: the burst point sandwiched between India and Pakistan



Kashmir, the blaze point between India and Pakistan is the British legacy in the Indo-Pak subcontinent. Being and unfinished agenda of the partition of India, the future of the intact south Asia depends on the future of Kashmir.     
Paradise like Kashmir, which is also called the Switzerland of Indo-Pak subcontinent, is surrounded by India, Pakistan, and the People Republic of China.
Historical Background of Kashmir:
Area of Kashmir:
The total area of Kashmir is 84741 square miles, which is equal to 135586 kilometers.   
Kashmir Liberation Movement:
When the Kashmir’s Muslims realized that their ruler, Hari Singh was not going to honor the wish of majority of Kashmiris, they rose against him. First of all the Muslims of Poonch came to the street against Maharaja and his government.
Response of Maharaja:
Although, Maharaja applied his full state force to crush the movement of the Muslims at Poonch, he not only failed, his force also had to vacate the districts of Poonch and Mirpur. As a result, the freedom fighters under the leadership of Sardar Ibrahim Khan constituted their own government, called Azad Kashmir government. Racing to this the Hindus, predominantly, those who had migrated from the west Punjab started killing and assaulting the Muslims in Jammu and surrounded rural areas as well, this plunged Kashmir into civil war.
Civil War in Kashmir:
During the power struggle between the Kashmiri freedom fighters and the maharaja forces, on October 22, 1947 some brave tribes’ brave fighters of Pakistan entered Kashmir to help their Kashmiri brothers. On October 26, 1947, Hari Singh, who had lost confidence of the majority of Kashmiris , run away from Jammu and found a safe place at Srinagar. On the next day, Hari Singh, decided to accede to India and sought military assistance from Lord Mountbatten. While accepting the request of Hari Singh conditionally permitted army to enter into Kashmir but made it clear in a letter to Singh that future of Kashmir is remain in the hands of Kashmiris. In such circumstance, Pakistan had no option to respond India militarily in Kashmir. As a result, Quaid-e-Azam ordered commander-in-chief of Pakistan army to check the Indian endeavors. Being disappointed from the war theater in Kashmir, pundit Jawaharlal Nehru, prime minister of India took the Kashmir dispute to the security council of UNO on January 1, 1948.
Role of UNO:
Uno established cease-fire line in Kashmir and for the resolution of dispute appointed the un commission for India and Pakistan. The commission passed two resolutions on august 13, 1948 and January 5, 1949, which granted the right of self-determination to the Kashmiris in principle ____that they were entitled to determine the final destiny of their land, Kashmir. However, unfortunately, the UNO failed to implement the resolutions of its commission well in time, which resulted in war between India and Pakistan in 1965.
UNO and the Kashmir Dispute:
From 1948 to 1971, the security council of United Nations Organization and the UN Commission for the India and Pakistan has adopted 18 and 2 resolutions, respectively, regarding the Kashmir dispute. However, so far the UN has not succeeded in holding a plebiscite (vote of all citizens) in Kashmir, which was promised to Kashmiris.
Great Powers and the Kashmir Dispute:
Kashmir is not an attractive land like Kuwait and East Timur. Great powers like USA, Britain and others maintain that both India and Pakistan should resolve the Kashmir dispute bilaterally. This perception of great powers is in fact, endorsement of the Indian position (bilateralism).
Muslim World and the Kashmir Dispute:
Despite the fact that the Muslims have the highest number (57) in the UN General Assembly, the Muslim world has no decisive say in resolving the Kashmir issue in accordance with the wishes of the kashmiris. OIC, being a subservient body to UNO can only pass ceremonial resolutions, regarding Kashmir issue.
Kashmir and the Kashmiris:
Unfortunately, today the Kashmiris are having divergent perceptions about the Kashmir issue. They have only two options; to join India or Pakistan but they are divided into more than thirty-six political parties and fractions. Apart from this, some Kashmiri leaders are of the view that the Third Opinion; neither with India nor with Pakistan, is the only possible solution to the Kashmir dispute. One thing is clear, unless and until Kashmiris are united, it is nearly impossible they would succeed in liberating their motherland.
General Musharraf and the Kashmir Dispute:
A two days summit, (Agra summit) was held between General Musharraf, the President of Pakistan and Mr. Atal Behari Vajpayee, the Prime Minister of India for resolving the outstanding issues between India and Pakistan, on the 15 and 16 July 2001, in Agra but the summit was collapsed on the Cross-border-terrorism words in the summit declaration. On December 5, 2006, General Musharraf, while taking bold initiative, presented the following proposals for the resolution of Kashmir Dispute:
Proposals of General Musharraf:
·       Demilitarization of Kashmir; a phased withdrawal of troops from Kashmir.
·       Self-governance of Kashmiris.
·       No change in the borders of Kashmir.
·       A joint supervision Mechanism, involving India, Pakistan and Kashmir.
India did not respond to these proposals in a reasonable responsible way.
 Conclusion:
Pakistan is trying its level best to get the Kashmir dispute resolved through multi-literalism. On the other hand, India is trying every means to manage the dispute bilaterally. Conflict resolution and conflict management are two different things. The fact is that in a two party dispute, bilateralism could be applied but in a dispute in which, more than two parties are involved, multi-literalism is to be applied. In Kashmir dispute, there are three parties, namely, India, Pakistan, and the Kashmiris. Looking at the nature of Kashmir dispute, the stand of Pakistan is principled. After the 9/11 era, India linked the Kashmiris’ struggle for self-determination with global terrorism and struggled hard to get Pakistan engaged on its western border. Actually, the game, which India has been playing with Pakistan since the initiation of the Composite Dialogue between Islamabad and Delhi, is to get Pakistan engaged on different fronts and through this tactic take the Kashmir dispute out of sight, out of mind and out of consideration. Without resolving the Kashmir dispute, India could neither become a permanent member of the Security Council nor a South Asian tiger.
Lesson from History;
India should learn from the history if the United States of America could not succeed in Vietnam and the same happened to the former Soviet Union in Afghanistan, how could India win the hearts and minds of the Kashmiris? Impossible.

               
                                      

Beautiful Poem for People of Aleppo (Aleppo! You stood tall)


 Aleppo! You Stood Tall

Aleppo! Aleppo! You stood tall

Enemies rise but soon they'll fall


Asad's barrels and Putin's bombs

Muslim rulers are Uncle Toms



Ya Ash-Sham! We hear your cry
Soon you'll rise and flags will fly


Victory! Victory! On it's way
Ya Allah to you we pray


USA - soon you'll pay
Khi-la-fah is on it's way


Make them pay ya Allah
Ya Raheem Ya Ghaffar

Totalitarian Government System


Meaning:
The word “Totalitarianism” means absolute control of the state’s affairs by one single group or a party. This system was not known before the emergence of technological society.

Definition:
It is a system of government in which all the resources of man, society, and as well as state are controlled by a single authority directly. This authority may be a group of elite, a political party, or a permanent institution. This definition provides that all the significant sources of power be effectively controlled by a single and identifiable party. Diffusion power does not exist. There may be a great variety of separate hierarchies but in reality all the individuals holding position of authority, are members of the one, ruling political party, on the same hand, all substructures are controlled by the apex of the party.

Functions of Totalitarian System:
Totalitarianism has become a reality in a few countries. This system works on few principles, these are discussed below: centralization, secrecy, non-tolerated resistance, coercion, and internationalism.

In all these systems, all the powers flow from central authority. No institution or structure can work independently. This concentration of power calls for highly developed means of information, social control, and as well as high degree of technical development in the economic sector. In this centralized system, tries to discourage resistance by coercion and spreading paralysis among potential opponents through terror and confusion. This system teaches, better to have consents or at least non-resistance on the part of governed.
The principle of secrecy is strictly observed while persuasion campaign and propaganda is launched with the full use of modern means and mass communication as well. An ideology is raised which becomes a source of legitimacy, a guide to an action and justification for an excess. Creative interpretations are made to adjust the changing needs of dynamic society.

Vision of Totalitarianism:
The totalitarianism has dreamed of a worldwide system of total control to bring all the humanity to one, but this has been shattered due to realities of a diverse world.

Future of Totalitarianism:
The totalitarian system, firstly, developed in Union of Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), eastern European countries and Communist China, is moving gradually away from its extreme features, the scientific developments and researches, mechanical advancement, and educational standard have created a change in the concept of man about himself and the universe. The change has created the social pressures in the societies of Eastern European states, United Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), and China, which explained that it is impossible to maintain total control over the dynamic nature of man and society. In the present age, the Cultural Revolution in China, the appeal for making of new society in United Soviet Socialist Republics (U.S.S.R), and Eastern European states, are the instances in this regard. Ultimately, this appeal has changed the entire totalitarian structure of Eastern European states, Baltic States, Central Asian Republics, and the Soviet Union’s society, which is now known as “Common Wealth of Independent States” (CIS). A degree of liberation has replaced the totalitarian tendencies in political, social, and as well as in economic aspects of the states.

Neil Prakash: The confused Buddhist who became a top IS jihadist


Neil Prakash, known as Abu Khaled al-Cambodi, is an Australian man and senior part in the Islamic State.He was conceived in Melbourne, Australia to a Fijian father and a Cambodian mother from the south-east suburb of Springvale South. 

Prakash changed over from Buddhism to Islam in August 2012 after a visit to Cambodia, when he was rebuffed by what he saw as Buddhism's corporate greed and excessive admiration. He went to gatherings at Al-Furqan book shop and petition focus in Melbourne. 



He headed out to Syria by means of Malaysia in 2013, touching base in the city of Raqqa. 

His international ID was drop October 2014. On August 19, 2015 police got a warrant for his capture. He was blamed for being an individual from a psychological oppressor association and of invasions into a remote state with the expectation of taking part in unfriendly exercises. 

On 5 May 2016, Attorney-General George Brandis said US authorities had affirmed Neil Prakash was slaughtered in Mosul,[4] however later news reports said police and insight organizations trusted he may at present be alive. 

On 29 July 2016, the United States Central Command said four regular citizens had been executed in a strike focusing on Prakash on 29 April 2016. 

On 25 November 2016, Australian counter-fear mongering authorities affirmed that Prakash was still alive and had been captured a few weeks beforehand by Turkish authorities in Turkey.

Features and Working Principles of Federation


Supremacy of constitution:

A federation is, in fact, an agreement between two or more states and regions to make a new state. This agreement is in form of written constitution, which defines the powers, and functions of federal and provincial governments.
Constitution is the source of federation unity because it is considered supreme law of the federating units. The constitution’s supremacy prevails due to three elements; it clearly shows powers and functions of federal powers and functions of federal and provincial governments; it is difficult to amend the constitution due to its rigidness; it provides for equal representation and share of each federating unit in the affairs of federation. 

Distribution of Powers:
It is most important principle of the working of the federation. This principle bases on the criterion that matters of local nature should be given to the provinces while the matters of national importance should be given under the control of federal government such as; Defence, Custom, Currency, Communication, and Foreign relations. There are three models of distribution of power principle: American model, India and Pakistan’s model, and Canadian model.

American Model:
In this case, the powers of federal government are written and remaining powers are called residuary and they are given to the federating states as to make the federating units strong and to facilitate federation functions.

India and Pakistan’s Model:
This model is based upon the act of 1935. This act shows that there are three types of power lists. The central list, which contains the powers of federal or central government, the provincial list, which contains the powers of provincial governments, and concurrent list which contains powers of central and provincial governments.

Canadian Model:
In this case, the powers of provinces are written and residuary powers are given to federal government to make it stronger than provinces.

Supreme of Judiciary:
A federation can work easily if it possesses a body or institution, which must enjoy the confidence of federating units. This institution may be judiciary. It is considered as the guardian of the constitution because whenever, a conflict or dispute emerges between federal government and provinces or between provinces, the judiciary interprets and explains the constitution and resolves the dispute. It shows that after constitution, judiciary is another binding and unifying element of federation.

Bicameral Legislature:
Each federation has a written constitution, which protects the rights and liberty of each unit, province of federation. The people of these areas can enjoy their rights and liberties but this is difficult in unitary system.

World Government:
The concept of federation is moving towards the concept of world government. In modern complicated society, people possess different types of thinking and interest. The rapid development of telex and satellite system brought the people so closer that they think in term of international society beside their national frontiers. The problem of a village, now has become problems of the world due to federal concept which is present in different societies of the world for example, United Nation Organization, World Health Organization, and Food and Agriculture Organization.

Merits:

Unity from diversity:
Federation creates unity diversity. Different small or big units, areas, or a region, having different cultures, traditions, languages, and outlooks, when tend to make federation, which is a unity, emerges from diversity. It means federation creates unity, which is a source of strength. 

Rapid Progress:
In a federation, different regions join and they exchange their skills and experiments, which help the big as well as small unit to achieve progress and prosperity and economic stability. This type of co-operation has created powerful federations of United States of America, Canada, U.S.S.R, and Australia. It shows that federation causes the rapid progress of the nations and nationalities.

Better control and Defence:
Federal system is beneficial for vast territorial states. A federation is base on two types of governments, the federal, and provincial. Similarly, each government in its own sphere due to which control system becomes effective and defence becomes easy. It is all due to facilitation of communicational system. For example, Russia has a vast area but it has divided all the area into small units. This division has made the administration in small as well as in big unit, effective and efficient. The similar case is United States of America, Pakistan, India, and Malaysia.

Rights and Liberty:
Each federation has a written constitution, which protects the rights and liberty of each unit, province of federation. The people of these areas can enjoy their rights and liberties but this is difficult in unitary system.

Demerits:

Weak Administration:
A federal system makes the administration of the state very weak because federation always faces a problem regarding central and provincial governments’ administrative legislative power and its execution. Each province faces its own problem of development, unemployment, public health, education, agriculture and much more. Including, there is always a danger of federation’s break up due to administrative weaknesses.

Lack of Uniformity:
Due to distribution of powers between central and provincial governments, the state lack of uniformity of law and policy. It also becomes intensify due to demand of full autonomy by different provinces, which increases the difficulties of people.

Hindrance in new Adoption:
In federal system, constitution is made deliberately rigid and amending process of constitution is very difficult due to which it becomes difficult for the nation to adopt new methods and laws for new environment. This rigidness of the constitution sometime becomes hindrance in the rapid development of the nation but it gives permanency to constitution and strength to federation.

Lack of quick decision in foreign policy:   
A federal state is helpless to follow a strong foreign policy because the central government has to seek the approval of the provincial governments regarding to state’s foreign policy. In United States of America, the president has to have the approval of the senate in the context of foreign policy.

Expensive Government:
The federal system is very expensive with regard to energy and economic expenditures. The system is not suitable for poor states because the double system of government requires a lot of energy on the part of governing parties or a party to carry the administrations of the state as well as to provide better facilities of communication to all the federating units of the state.

Socialism and Its History


Socialism is the name for a varied group of political theories and movements. Socialist ideas and agitation began in the early nineteenth century in England and France. The period between 1820s and1850s was marked by plethora of diverse and distinguished theorists. It was also marked by the foundation of co-operative societies, model utopian communities, and the advocacy of scheme to be put into action by governments.

Existence:

Socialism was brought into existence by the rise of industrial production and the intensification of wage labor in handicraft enterprises. Prior to the large-scale existence of workshops, factories, and machines, most radical conceptions of reorganization of a society, were agrarian. Socialist doctrines sought to “organize” society in order to replace the anarchy of market place and large-scale poverty with an orderly system based on lesser or greater degrees of central control, co-operation, and mutuality. Organization offered a rational solution to the “social question” the problems of mass: poverty, and poor urban living conditions. Most of the early socialists were middle-class reformers, concerned philanthropists who sought to better the lot of poor by bringing change in social organization rather than charitable works.

Marx and Engles Theory of Socialism:
In the period between 1848 and 1871, two socialists made radical attempts to recast socialist theory. They attacked the utopianism of their predecessors, refusing to promulgate schemes of social reform. In essence, they argued that:
o   The class struggle is the objective basis of socialist victory; socialism is identified with the proletariat and its struggle to eliminate exploitation and oppression as well.
o   The class struggle arises from the system of social production and that the development of forces of production would secure the objective basis for a planned economy.
o   The overthrow of exploiting class an its ruling machinery, the state, would usher in a new period of popular self-government in which the domination of man by man would be replaced by the administration of things.
These socialist insisted on the necessity of revolution and the seizure of power by working class but did recognize that universal suffrage might facilitate the downfall of capitalism.

Actually, it did nothing of the sort. Between 1870 and 1914, the institutional foundations of modern socialism were developed in Britain and Germany. Universal suffrage created the modern political party, to mobilize the mass electorate. In Britain and Germany, large-scale industrialism was accompanied by the growth of trade unionism. The British Labor Party was created to facilitate the parliamentary representation of trade unions.
Socialism in Britain and in Germany:

In the period of 1870 to 1914 in Britain and Germany, central state and municipal authorities came to provide to administer and to organize an increasing range of activities, mass schooling, social insurance, public health, sewerage, and electric light and so on.

This administration of mass needs and utilities provided another base for socialist advocacy and practice. British syndicalism perished in the same period, while institutional unionism survived and flourished.

Socialism in Europe:
Since 1945, socialist and social democracy parties have participated in government. In Scandinavia, UK, and Germany, socialists became accepted parties of government, and in the Swedish case ruled uninterruptedly for over thirty years. In this period, traditional socialist ideas, centering on public owned, planned production, suffered at the expense of social democratic views of redistribution and welfare in a state-managed full employment capitalist system. Social democratic ideas have had to complete with a revitalized socialist fundamentalism in the United Kingdom. At the same time throughout Europe, many intellectuals have begun to rethink the goals of socialism. Many are chastened by the experience of centrally planned production and distribution in the USSR, but also by the consequences of the growth of statist welfare-ism in Western Europe. Many favor the sort of anti-authoritarian, decentralizing and self-management views advocated by Cole and Guild Socialists. The problem with much of this rethinking is the failure to provide a new political base. Socialist doctrine has entered a period of diversity and productivity comparable to the 1820s-50s, its institutional supports, however, remain those developed in the period 1870-1914.

Socialism has been treated as an exclusively European phenomenon. Socialism in the United States, having growth spectacularly between the formation of the American Socialist Party in 1901 and 1912 thereafter it underwent a process of decline such that in 1938 it had been reduced to a more 7,000 members. This failure is attributable to many causes but most important is the character of American trade unionism, which made it impossible to create the links between a united union movement and a socialist political party so important in Germany and England. Socialist doctrines in the “Third World”, where are not modeled on those of Europe, have tried to offer a vision of social organization different from that based on large-scale industry, as in the case of “African Socialism” Julis Nyerere offered perhaps the most systematic version of this alternative to European ideas. Some commentators would contend that not only have such doctrines been a dismal in failure practice, but also that as a doctri9ne they are better conceived as a variant of agrarian populism. Socialism is an outgrowth of advance industrialism but is by no mean an inevitable one.

Why and How Manners Matter?

By definition, a "simple choice" is something so clear it shouldn't require elucidation or elaboration. It should be clear to any person who gives it any thought by any methods. However here's a dating simple choice that continues escaping various people: Good conduct matter. 

Truth be told, "customary expectedness" in our overall population is not too fundamental any more. Social norms that our mind boggling grandparents thought little of have been truly crumbled recently by consistent changes in our total qualities. Where they expected—even asked for—respectfulness and respect in their associations, an expansive bit of us have ended up accustomed to a rising tide of uncivilized and unpleasant direct in our own. 


That is never more unfriendly than when we start another nostalgic relationship. As Goethe once said, lead are a reflect in which people exhibit the world a "photo" of themselves. Clearly, about everyone tries to show a cleaned picture in social conditions. However, precisely what constitutes one's best when dating merits a more concentrated look. 

As an issue of first significance, awesome conduct are only the outward show of an internal demeanor. Treating each other with attentiveness and respect requires altogether more than opening passages for a woman or communicating appreciation toward a man for snatching the dinner tab. As Emily Post once said, "Direct are a fragile nature with the conclusions of others. In case you have that care, you have extraordinary direct, paying little mind to what fork you use."

Democracy (Definition and Kinds)



The word democracy means the rule of people and as a form of government; it is the rule of majority. It shows that democracy is a kind of government, which is run according to the wishes of people. In real democracy, people are the source of all political powers.

Definition:

Democracy has been defined by many eminent scholars and political scientists. In them, the most accurate definition is, “Government of the people, for the people, and by the people”.
The above definition gives the three features of the democracy: political equality, government responsible to the popular will, and the last one is majority rule. These are briefly discussed.

The political equality means that each citizen has an equal opportunity to influence government policy. A responsible government refers to an arrangement whereby citizen can enforce their demands upon officials. Majority rule refers to basing of government decisions upon agreement by the majority of citizens, express either by popular vote or though their representatives.

Kinds of Democracy:

Direct Democracy:

It is also known as pure form of democracy. It is the perfect expression of popular sovereignty. It shows that direct democracy is a form of government in which people take part directly in public and state affairs. In ancient Greek city-states and still in Switzerland people directly take part in state affairs as to make laws, decide government policy, and to elect government officials. This kind of democracy demands the following conditions:
  •     The number of citizens must be small.
  •    Property and wealth must be distributed equally.
  •    The society must culturally be homogenous.
  •    Those who administer the laws must not be allowed to function independently of the popular will that makes laws in the first place.
All these conditions seem to be unusual and impossible in present society; therefore, it is difficult and impossible for modern large territorial states to follow direct democracy.

Indirect Democracy:

It is also known as representative democracy. When people exercise their sovereign power and take part in state affairs through their representatives by electing them, the government is called “Indirect or Representative democracy”. This system evolved in Western Europe through the concept of universal suffrage or franchise. For this purpose, elections are held periodically, people elect their representatives.

For a fixed term, and during their stay in office, they try to reflect the will of the people in formulation of state’s policies. This type of democracy is very popular in modern times and almost, all the democratic states have adopted Indirect or Representative Democracy. Both kinds of democracies need certain conditions for operation and success.

Conditions for success of democracy:
Democracy is, indeed, the best form of government but it requires certain conditions for its smooth working and success.
  •     Democracy cannot function where people are undisciplined and they do not respect rules and regulations: when they are very depressed and passive because democracy requires active participation of all the people in the state’s affairs.
  •     Democracy requires homogenous society. It cannot work where sectional and patriarchal interests are stronger than that of national interests.
  •     Where the controlling authority is ignorant and incapable, the democracy cannot work because it requires efficient, capable, intelligent people for administrative purpose.
  •     Democracy cannot work in a state where desire to rule others, is stronger than desire for sense of liberty. Democracy requires the real sense of liberty for all the citizens of the state.
Beside all the conditions, the biggest is education, which enlightens citizens to elect the best government for them, and they are fully aware of their rights and duties. These conditions provide certain merits, demerits of democracy.

Merits:

Welfare of the people:
Democracy works for welfare of the people because it enables the people to stand up for their rights and interests and to work for the welfare of entire community.

Equality:
The soul of democracy is election, which bases on the concept of one-man one vote. This makes all citizens politically equal; therefore, in democracy everyone is fit to take part in state’s affairs. Similarly, democracy provides equal chance of self-development and happiness.

Efficient Government:
In democracy, people elect their representatives for the state’s government. This elective power of the people is known as popular control and this control makes the government responsible to the people. In this way, people elect efficient and responsible persons for government of the state. This ensures the greatest degree of the efficient government. The government always confirms wishes and opinions of the people. It means democracy provides efficient government and best laws for people of any state.

Educative Value:
Democracy puts emphasis on education because it develops the intellectual and spiritual qualities of man. Education enables people to learn patriotism, rights, and duties and to build civil sense. Therefore, social democrats give the greatest importance to education. They consider education the only element, which helps in the survival of democracy in any state. Besides these, democracy makes citizen to take part in elections, public discussions, and decision-making processes, which make people intelligent and politically conscious about their state and the world.

Demerits:

Democracy provides that peoples are sovereign but actually popular elections are run by the property owners, big merchants, and clever politicians, therefore, in practice they become sovereign instead of common person.
In democracy, citizens look to quantity of votes and not the quality of man to be elected for government. Similarly, citizens elect their representatives on territorial basis rather than professional or caliber sense.
Democracy is a game of clever and corrupt people who know how to catch votes by emotional appeals and tricks, so, it is government of many ignorant than few intelligent.

Modern democracies are capitalistic and imperialistic in nature because only rich people can contest elections and always dominate political parties. The democracy of Pakistan and United States’ is the best example of this kind.
Democratic government is less stable than any other government. The self-centered politicians and opposition always create crisis and obstacles in the smooth functioning of government. Similarly, democracy is always weak in wars and emergencies because it takes   long time to decide important measures.